LNG 101 week five: Regasification Process and Terminals
Nov12

LNG 101 week five: Regasification Process and Terminals

The LNG chain ends with the unloading, storage and vaporization of the gas in a regasification terminal. Liquefied natural gas is received and offloaded from an LNG carrier into storage tanks ranging in capacity from 100,000 to 160,000 cubic meters. These maintain the gas in the liquid state at minus-163° Celsius. Regasification involves gradually re-warming the liquefied gas until its temperature rises above 0° Celsius. The process takes place at high pressure through a series of evaporators, the most energy-efficient technique when the right water quality is available. In other cases, some of the gas is burned to provide the necessary heat. The gas returns to its original state. In other words, it recovers its gas form and its initial volume, almost 600 times greater. Evaporators of various output volumes, constructions and heating methods are the basic equipment used in the LNG regasification facility. The location, intended use and fuel availability are the main factors considered in selecting the type of evaporators and the LNG regasification facility layout. LNG evaporators are divided into the following groups: Evaporators that heat to a temperature equivalent to the temperature of the surroundings Evaporators that heat to a temperature higher than the temperature of the surroundings Evaporators with direct heating (Photo/Courtesy/Petrobras News Agency – The first Floating Storage and Regasification Unit, or FSRU, was the Golar Spirit, which is chartered by Petrobras and began operating in Brazil in January 2009. A regasification vessel is an LNG carrier with LNG vaporizers onboard and represents a major development for the industry.) On its way out of the terminal, the gas is treated as necessary to meet the specifications of regulators and end-users. For example, its heating value can be modified by adjusting the concentrations of nitrogen, butane or propane or by blending with other gases. The gas is then injected into a gas pipeline connected to a distribution network and, in this way, it reaches the end user, whether household or industrial. One hundred LNG regasification terminals are now operating in 21 countries worldwide, nearly 20 more are under construction, and approximately 30 more have been proposed. The largest receiving and regasification terminal in the world is the Sabine Pass LNG terminal in Cameron Parish, La. The terminal is spread over an 853-acre site. The terminal is owned and operated by Cheniere Energy. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, or FERC, approved the project in December 2004. Ground breaking for phase 1 of the terminal took place in March 2005. This phase came on stream in April 2008. The facility can handle 400 LNG vessels a year and features two unloading docks and four dedicated tugs....

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Beacon OHSS, Rock Star customer satisfaction for your business
Nov11

Beacon OHSS, Rock Star customer satisfaction for your business

Founded in 1999, Beacon Occupational Health and Safety Services is a woman owned, family run business offering medical, safety and training solutions for businesses throughout Alaska, the US and around the world. Beacon was founded on the idea that everyone should receive “Rock Star” customer satisfaction, quality service and have fun! – and the company has imparted these core values to their team. Beacon provides on-site and remote medical clinics and clinical services to employers who need medical services; safety consulting, planning, training and accident investigation; and training for companies big and small in areas ranging from Fire Extinguisher Training to Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting and Fall Protection. In addition to the medical, safety and training programs offered by Beacon, they’ve created a division called Beacon Insight – providing employers compliance support in the medical, safety and training arena. To learn more about Beacon and ways they can help your business, visit...

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Alaska Tent & Tarp, manufacturing custom fabric products in Alaska for over 60 years
Nov11

Alaska Tent & Tarp, manufacturing custom fabric products in Alaska for over 60 years

Started in the late 1940’s and originally called Alaska Canvas Supply and Commercial Sewing, Alaska Tent and Tarp is a family-owned business, manufacturing all its products in Alaska for the even the harshest arctic conditions. Arctic Tent & Tarp provides custom fabric products for commercial, recreational and personal use in Alaska and around the world. They have a large product line specializing in custom covers, wall tents and an extensive line of the famous Arctic Oven™ which was recently featured on “Dropped: Project Yukon” on The Sportsman Channel. Their mission statement is why Alaska Tent & Tarp has served individuals and businesses for over 60 years: “We design, fabricate and sell commercial, industrial, military and recreational fabric products for all environments. Our goal is to provide quality products worldwide at a reasonable price in a timely manner that meet or exceed the customer’s expectations.” To learn more about Alaska Tent and Tarp’s product line, visit their website....

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United Rentals, Expertise in the equipment rental business
Nov11

United Rentals, Expertise in the equipment rental business

With locations in Soldotna and Anchorage, United Rentals is the world’s largest equipment rental provider with over 820 branches in 49 states and 10 Canadian Provinces. Founded in 1997, United Rentals has almost $8 billion in rentals that they provide to construction, industrial, municipal, government agencies and others. United Rentals serves two business sectors: General and Trench Safety, Power & HVAC. General rentals serves construction and industrial needs, as well as homeowner equipment for rent. Trench Safety, Power & HVAC is geared toward underground construction, temporary power, climate control and disaster recovery. In their own words, United Rentals says, “…we employ customer service professionals who have firsthand knowledge of equipment capabilities and site challenges. Their expertise, together with our company’s commitment to safety, are compelling competitive advantages. Visit United Rentals website to learn more about their...

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LNG 101 week four: Shipping LNG around the globe
Nov04

LNG 101 week four: Shipping LNG around the globe

Natural gas is normally shipped by pipeline, but it is impractical to build a pipeline from the Middle East or Africa to the United States and other locations. This logistical challenge has led to the creation of special ships capable of carrying the liquid form of natural gas — LNG. LNG carriers are “tank ships” — merchant vessels designed to transport liquids in bulk. The first LNG carrier was launched from the Calcasieu River on the Louisiana Gulf coast in January 1959 with the world’s first ocean cargo of LNG and it sailed to the UK where the cargo was delivered. The expansion of the LNG trade has led to a large expansion of the fleet. Hundreds of vessels have been built and today, giant LNG ships are sailing worldwide. Every single LNG ship that is seaworthy is active. There is not much spare capacity anywhere in the world. Early LNG ships were made with independent aluminum cargo tanks, with a capacity of 27,000 cubic meters and were used in the Algerian LNG trade in the late 1960s. Today, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) rules specify that all LNG ships must be one of three types. Type A are those built according to standard oil tank design. Type C refers to those that have a pressure vessel design. Type B refers to tanks that are neither of the first two types. In the eyes of the Coast Guard, all LNG tanks are Type B because Type B tanks must be designed without any of the general assumptions that go into designing the other tank types. There are three general Type B tank designs for LNG. The first type of design, the membrane tank, is supported by the hold it occupies. The other two designs, spherical and prismatic, are self-supporting. Membrane tanks are composed of a layer of metal, a layer of insulation, another liquid-proof layer, and another layer of insulation. These layers are then attached to the walls of the hold. In the case of the first design, the primary and secondary barriers are sheets of nickel steel. Unlike regular steel, this nickel steel barely contracts upon cooling. All membranes are built up from the surface of a hold using units of insulation, called panels, that are anchored to it. Special insulation is inserted around the anchors. A membrane design is very complex with many design elements. The year was 1969 when Phillips Petroleum and Marathon Oil began shipping natural gas from Cook Inlet to Japan. The Polar Alaska and the Arctic Tokyo, identical LNG carriers, were specially designed pressure vessels just for this purpose. The tanks on these...

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